Robust design and optimization procedure for piled-raft foundation to support tall wind turbine in clay and sand

Wind energy. an alternative to conventional energy produced by burning fossil fuels. is a renewable and clean energy which produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation. consumes no water. and uses only a little land. With the rapidly growing world population. it is essential to increase the production of energy using sustainable sources such as wind to meet the demand. One of the cost-effective ways to increase the production of wind energy is to build taller towers. Since a higher and steadier wind speed can be accessed at higher elevations. building taller towers can increase the wind energy production of a single turbine. The study of Lewin (2010) revealed that an increase in turbine elevation from 80 m to 100 m would result in a 4.6% higher wind speed which translates to a significant 14% increase in power output.

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